Diabetes treatment includes a combination of healthy diet, exercise routines and drugs. These are inseparable treatments, combining methods will help improve the effectiveness of treatment and prevent complications.
1. Type 2 Diabetes treatment with nutrition
There is no same diet for all people with diabetes. No food is strictly forbidden for people with diabetes. However, you should avoid foods that cause high blood sugar after meals, which affects blood fat and blood pressure. The general rule is that a diabetic diet needs to coordinate a balanced diet of carbohydrate, fat, protein, vitamins, minerals and fiber.
– For carbohydrates, patients should use products with a low glycemic index (GI), high in fiber such as whole grains, legumes, lower sweet fruits and green vegetables. You should limit foods with high glycemic index such as cakes, candies, carbonated soft drinks, sweet fruits like longan, lychee, watermelon …
– For fat, people with diabetes should limit eating animal fat, animal viscera, fast food …. When trying to cure type 2 diabetes, you should eat vegetable oil, lean meat and fish. You can use more products for diabetics such as milk, cakes, cereals … To ensure a proper diet for your health, you should consult nutritionists in the field of metabolic pathology.
2. Type 2 Diabetes treatment with excercises
Everyone needs to increase their daily exercise, especially people with type 2 diabetes. Exercises of whole body, brisk walking, jogging, swimming or any other sport will help improve blood sugar, control weight, reduce insulin resistance and protect the heart.
You need to pay attention, exercise activity can cause hypoglycemia during and after stopping exercise. Therefore, you should not exercise when blood sugar is low. If you are exercising with prolonged intensity, you should eat a small snack before training and drink water regularly (if you need to eat 20g more carbohydrates each time) during exercise.
To prevent hypoglycemia, you should measure your blood sugar before, during and after exercise when you change a familiar exercise. If you have hypoglycemia, you should consult your doctor to reduce the dose of medication that directly affects practicing time before adjusting your diet.
You should bring some cakes, sweet candy when you exercise to be able to eat immediately when symptoms of hypoglycemia.
3. People with type 2 diabetes should monitor blood sugar
Depending on the drug treatment regimen, the number and timing of capillary blood sugar self-testing may vary. If you are currently using type 2 diabetes treatment with insulin, you need to check your blood sugar several times a day, to monitor the response to treatment and adjust the dose. Whenever you feel tired or have unusual symptoms, you need to check your blood sugar immediately.
The case of women with gestational diabetes is even more important to monitor blood sugar regularly at home. This disease usually appears around the fifth month of pregnancy, which is also the stage when the fetus is developing very fast.
4. Type 2 diabetes treatment with medication
The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is complex. Therefore, there are many groups of drugs to treat type 2 diabetes according to different mechanisms of action. You should note, each drug works according to different mechanisms, there are side effects, different contraindications.
Therefore, patients need to meet a doctor, obey the doctor’s prescription, do not abuse prescription drugs or arbitrarily treatment. Depending on the condition, duration and complications of the disease, the doctor prescribes the appropriate groups of oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin.
Drug categories for type 2 diabetes:
- Biguanide (Metformin):
The drug group is used for a long time, works to reduce insulin resistance, weight loss. This drug is the first prescription when patients were diagnosed with diabetes who are overweight, obesity. Side effects of Metformin are bloating, digestive disorders.
- Sulfonylureas (Tolbutamide, Gliclazide):
A medication that lowers blood sugar by stimulating the pancreas to secrete insulin. The drug can cause weight gain and cause hypoglycemia.
- Glinides (Nateglinide, Repaglinide):
Similar to sulfonylureas but with less duration of action, rarely causes hypoglycemia.
- Inhibiting enzyme α-glucosidase (Acarbose):
The drug competes and inhibits the effect of complex hydrolyzed enzyme into simple sugars, thus slowing the absorption of carbohydrates from the intestine. The drug mainly reduces postprandial blood glucose, used alone does not cause hypoglycemia. Side effects mainly include flatulence, digestive disorders.
- TZDs (Thiazoldinediones hay glitazones):
The drug works to reduce insulin resistance. Good blood sugar lowering effect but can cause weight gain.
- Inhibition of DPP-4 enzyme (Sitagliptin):
The group of drugs inhibits the enzyme DDP-4, an enzyme that is a major metabolite of GLP-1, thereby increasing that metabolizes GLP-1(glucagon-like peptide), which stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin. It also inhibits glucagon secretion. Using only this drug does not cause hypoglycemia and does not cause weight gain
- GLP-1 agonists exenatide:
GLP-1 is a hormone secreted by the gut when we eat food. This hormone stimulates the pancreas to release insulin and inhibits glucagon secretion. The drug does not cause hypoglycemia and does not cause weight gain. The main side effects of the drug are nausea, vomiting, or gastrointestinal disorders, which may occur but are rare.
- Sodium Glucose Transporter 2 (Ivokana, AstraZeneca):
The drug inhibits the reabsorption of glucose by the glomeruli, so it increases the excretion of glucose through the urine, lowering blood sugar. Due to the excretion of glucose from the body through the urinary tract, the drug is effective for weight loss. The main side effect of the drug is an increased risk of urinary tract infections.
There are many different types of insulin based on time of action such as fast, slow, semi-slow and mixed insulin. Depending on the patient’s condition, the doctor may prescribe patients to use 1 to 4 insulin injections / day. Insulin is often combined with hypoglycemic tablets when the pills are hard to control blood sugar. Side effects of insulin are hypoglycemia and weight gain.
5. Type 2 diabetes treatment by surgery
This is a treatment for people with type 2 diabetes who are very obese and cannot control eating. As the stomach gets smaller, the amount of food that goes into it decreases. Therefore, the patient will lose weight and reduce insulin resistance. However, losing weight by exercising and dieting is always more encouraged than invasive intervention.
These are the 5 most effective diabetes treatments. You should combine healthy diet and reasonable excercises to achieve the best effects. Let’s follow your doctor’s advice for the most effective diabetes treatment.