Insulin is one of the most effective antidiabetic drugs, which is absolutely indicated for people with type 1 diabetes, gestational diabetes, type 2 diabetes (when a person has changed diet, exercise, and used medication but uncontrolled blood sugar). To use it effectively and patients can inject it at home, that is very important to know What is insulin?, What are the effects? and when to use it most appropriately?.
1. What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a serious disease when your blood glucose level is higher than normal. Because your body is deficient or resistant to insulin, resulting in a disorder of blood sugar metabolism. When you have diabetes, your body does not effectively metabolize the carbohydrates from the foods to generate energy.
Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough them or doesn’t use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells.
Frequent high blood sugar levels over time increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, causing damage to other organs such as eyes, kidneys, nerves and other serious illnesses. It is called Diabetes.
2. Insulin and its role in blood glucose control of Diabetics
2.1. What is insulin?
Insulin is a hormone secreted by beta cells of the islet of the pancreas. It is the only hormone that lowers blood glucose levels in the bloodstream and promote the storage of glucose in fat, muscle, liver and other body tissues. In the treatment of diabetes mellitus, depending on the specific patient case, it may be prescribed by a doctor, just like other diabetes medications.
2.2. The role of insulin in the body of Diabetics
Insulin role is in controlling blood sugar levels, it is also involved in the storage of fat. A lack of them, or an inability to adequately respond to it, can lead to the development of the symptoms of diabetes.
Which is a hormone that is responsible for allowing glucose in the blood to enter the cells, providing them with the energy to function. It helps control blood glucose levels by signaling the liver and muscle and fat cells to take in glucose from the blood.
After we eat a meal, a large amount of starch will enter the body, then they will increase the stimulation of beta cells on the pancreatic island to be able to release insulin. After that, which will affect the processes of keeping and storing glucose in the body and especially the liver and fat tissue.
When your blood glucose level is high, glucose will be stored as glycogen and stored in the liver and when you are hungry, the amount of glucose in the blood decreases, glycogen will be converted back into glucose to continue getting into the bloodstream. ,ensure blood sugar.
Role of Insulin:
- Which inhibits phosphorylase enzyme, making glycogen convert slowly into glucose.
- It enhances to absorb glucose.
- It enhances the activity of enzymes to synthesize glycogen.
- It greatly affects blood sugar:
Diabetes is caused by high blood sugar. Insulin is a hormone that inhibits the conversion of glycogen into glucose and releases it into the bloodstream. If lack of them, glycogen will not stop metabolizing and give an excess amount of glucose into the bloodstream causing diabetes.
Purpose of insulin regimen:
- Adding them for the body due to it produces not enough of this hormone as requirement.
- Some people with diabetes are unable to take oral medications (gestational diabete, type 2 diabetes with acute illness) use it to control blood sugar.
3. When patients with diabetes are treated with insulin?
Indications for insulin injection:
– Mandatory for type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes that need to inject insulin:
Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas produces very little or no insulin. Without the presence of them, many of the body’s cells can not take glucose from the blood. Therefore, the body uses other sources of energy. It therapy is vital for replacing the insulin your body doesn’t produce.
Sugar can not be metabolized into cells to produce energy for the body. As a result, blood sugar levels rise, patients with type 1 diabetes require compulsory treatment with insulin injections to control blood sugar. The disease can occur at any age but mainly in children and adolescents.
– With type 2 Diabetes that need to inject insulin when:
Type 2 diabetes mellitus when blood sugar is not controlled (blood glucose> 14 mmol / l and HbA1C> 11%). When the body has an infection, surgical intervention, liver failure, kidney failure, an allergy to hypoglycemic drugs, ketoacidosis or increased osmotic pressure. At that time injecting them is necessary.
People with type 2 diabetes can produce it normally, but it is not working properly or called insulin resistance in the body, resulting in the sugar not being transferred into the cells, thus failing to control the blood sugar causing the sugar persistent high blood.
Some people with type 2 diabetes can manage the disease well by controlling their weight, diet and exercise, and taking oral hypoglycemic medications. When blood sugar is not controlled by oral medication, it is mandatory to switch to injection.
4. Types of insulin and precautions for use
There are 4 main types of insulin: fast acting, medium acting, slow acting and finally mixed insulin. Which is injected only under the skin, usually the injection site is in the abdomen, upper arms and thighs.
– Short and fast acting: Insulin is usually injected directly under the skin, which dissociates rapidly into monomers and is absorbed. After about 1 hour the drug will reach peak absorption. Due to the rapid action of this type, patients need to be very careful about the amount of carbohydrates in their meals.
– Intermediate acting insulin: This drug after being injected under the skin will begin to work after 2-4 hours, peaking after 6-7 hours and lasting for about 10-20 hours. This medicine needs to be injected 2 times a day to ensure its effectiveness.
– Slow-acting and long-acting: It is often taken at night. There are many different types of medicine available for each patient.
– Mixed insulin: That has two types of fast-acting and long-acting insulin mixed in the same type or the same injection. Therefore, the drug will have 2 peaks, one is the affect of fast acting on the amount of carbohydrates in the meal and the affect of long acting to create basal insulin level.
Insulin is the most powerful hypoglycemic drug; Hypoglycemia is the most common side effect when it is injected directly into the body. Excess them will also inhibit glycogen metabolism, causing a sharp drop in blood glucose. Pay attention to inject them according to doctor’s guides.