Prediabetes is a disorder of glucose metabolism that causes the glycemic index to rise, but is not yet considered diabetes. The disease will develop to type 2 diabetes and cause serious complications if there is no proper adjustment of lifestyle and diet. Prediabetes test is the most effective way to detect disease. So when should you test for prediabetes?
1. What is prediabetes?
Pre-diabetes is a condition of fasting glucose disorder or impaired glucose tolerance. Prediabetes is a level of blood sugar higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. In other words, prediabetes is a warning level, a sign that the person is at risk for type 2 diabetes.
- Normal fasting blood sugar ranges from 70 to 100 mg / dL.
- The fasting blood sugar of a person with prediabetes is between 100 – 125 mg / dL.
- The fasting blood sugar of a diabetic is above 126 mg / dL.
If a person with prediabetes has uncontrolled blood sugar levels, causing blood glucose to continue to rise, it can lead to type 2 diabetes, which has a negative impact on health.
The cause of prediabetes is that insulin does not make enough after eating or the body cannot absorb insulin, causing it to build up in the bloodstream, causing high glucose levels. Excess fat can also lead to pre-diabetes.
2. When should you test for prediabetes?
Prediabetes has no clear symptoms. Therefore, it is often difficult for patients to detect abnormal signs to actively test for prediabetes. Most cases of prediabetes are diagnosed by accident at a routine physical exam or blood test.
In some cases, there will be symptoms such as frequent urination, fatigue, blurred vision, thirst, changes in skin color. People with prediabetes tend to have darker skin tones, especially around the neck, armpits, knees, elbows, and knuckles.
People who are at high risk of type 2 diabetes are more likely to have prediabetes. Include:
– Overweight: Being overweight is a major risk factor for pre-diabetes. In particular, people with a BMI over 35 will get sick easily.
– Sedentary lifestyle: The less active you are, the higher your risk of developing diabetes.
– Age: Although prediabetes can develop at any age, the risk increases as you get older, especially after age 45.
– Family history: The risk of diabetes increases if your parents or siblings have type 2 diabetes.
– Race: While there is no clear reason, people of certain races – including African Americans, Hispanics, Indians and Asians – are more likely to develop pre-diabetes.
– Gestational diabetes: If you have gestational diabetes (prediabetes happens when you are pregnant), your risk of developing diabetes later in life increases. If you give birth to a baby weighing more than 4 kg, you are also at higher risk for prediabetes.
– Polycystic ovary syndrome: This syndrome occurs in women with symptoms such as irregular menstrual periods, hirsutism and obesity. This syndrome increases the risk of diabetes.
– Sleep: Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder in which the person stops breathing many times during sleep, leading to poor sleep quality. People who work switch shifts or night shifts may have sleep problems. Sleep problems may also have an increased risk of diabetes or type 2 diabetes.
If you belong to one of the above subjects and have symptoms such as drowsiness, fatigue, weight gain around the abdomen, you should have a blood test to determine if you have prediabetes.
* Prediabetes is diagnosed when one of the following disorders is below:
– Impaired fasting glucose (IFG): fasting plasma glucose from 100 (5.6 mmol / L) to 125 mg / dL (6.9 mmol / L).
– Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT): Glucose plasma at 2 hours after an oral glucose tolerance test 75 g from 140 (7.8 mmol / L) to 199 mg / dL (11 mmol / L).
– HbA1c ranges from 5.7% (39 mmol / mol) to 6.4% (47 mmol / mol).
These conditions are not eligible for the diagnosis of diabetes but are still at risk for diabetes, called prediabetes.
3. Can prediabetes be treated?
Pre-diabetes can be treated with two methods of weight loss and increased exercise, exercise. Losing 10% of your weight and exercising regularly 3-4 days / week, 30 minutes a day will help stabilize blood glucose levels. In addition to treating pre-diabetes, these two measures also help improve health, improve blood pressure, bone and joint problems …
In the case of prediabetes transformed into type 2 diabetes, it will be very difficult to treat completely, patients in addition to lifestyle changes, healthy eating also need the support of drugs.
4. People with pre-diabetes should eat?
People with pre-diabetes need to control their weight, so they should apply a scientific diet, increase fiber, limit sweets and fats.
Notes on the diet of people with pre-diabetes include:
- Eat plenty of fiber: vegetables, fruits.
- Eat fish 2 times / week.
- Eat lean meat in moderate amounts, enough to provide the body with the protein it needs. It is better to be able to substitute meat proteins with plant proteins.
- Limit fried foods and greasy foods.
- Do not eat fast foods that are high in fat.
- Eat a lot of salads or hard shelled nuts.
- Avoid refined carbohydrate foods.
- Drink a lot of water, limit drinking juice and eat sweet fruits like: mango, durian … limit alcohol, coffee, soft drinks.
People with pre-diabetes are less likely to detect the disease if they rely solely on the signs and symptoms of the disease. Therefore, regular monitoring and regular checkups are needed to detect disease early for timely treatment to avoid the risk of developing diabetes and the risk of serious complications.