As you know Diabetes is a top serious disease, special type 2 Diabetes. But do you know it’s complications affect patient’s health and mentality?. Even it causes the death of many people in the world every year.
Therefore, which is why the early diagnosis and control is so important and necessary. What you can do to prevent complications of Diabetes from developing.
High blood glucose levels can lead to serious diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, nerves and teeth. In addition, people with diabetes also have a higher risk of developing infections. In almost all high-income countries, diabetes is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease, blindness, kidney failure, and lower limb amputation.
1. What is type 2 Diabetes?
With type 2 diabetes, when your body doesn’t use insulin well or have insulin resistance. and can’t keep blood sugar at normal levels.
Chronic hyperglycemia in long-term causes damage to very small blood vessels in your body. Which causes carbohydrate, protide, lipide metabolism disorders. Normally, it is damage in many different organs, especially in the heart and blood vessels, kidneys, eyes, nerves and teeth.
People who are middle-aged or older are most likely to get this kind of diabetes, so it used to be called adult-onset diabetes. But type 2 diabetes also affects kids and teens, mainly because of childhood obesity.
2. Complications of Diabetes
This disease divided into two types: acute (sudden) and chronic (long-term):
2.1. Acute Complications of Diabetes
This is low blood sugar, is a fall in blood sugar to levels 3,6mmol/l under normal. This may result in a variety of symptoms including clumsiness, trouble talking, confusion, loss of consciousness, seizures. If not treated promptly may be death.
Most common cause of hypoglycemia is medications used to treat diabetes mellitus such as insulin and sulfonylureas. Risk is greater in diabetics who have eaten less than usual, exercised more than usual or drunk alcohol.
2.2. Chronic complications of Diabetes
– Cardiovascular disease:
This is the most common cause of death in people with diabetes. High blood pressure, high cholesterol, high blood glucose and other risk factors contribute to increasing the risk of cardiovascular complications.
Diabetes increases the risk of hypertension, arteriosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke causes paralysis or death.
– Kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy):
Your kidneys filter extra water and wastes out of your blood and make urine. Kidney disease means your kidneys are damaged and can’t filter blood the way they should.
When Glucose is high level in blood, which caused by damage to small blood vessels in the kidneys leading to the kidneys becoming less efficient or to fail altogether.
Kidney disease is much more common in people with diabetes than in those without diabetes. Maintaining near normal levels of blood glucose and blood pressure can greatly reduce the risk of kidney disease.
– Nerve disease (diabetic neuropathy):
Neuropathy is damage or dysfunction of one or more nerves that typically results in numbness, tingling, muscle weakness and pain in the affected area. Diabetic neuropathy cause damage to the nerves throughout the body when blood glucose and blood pressure are too high. All nerve fibers in the body are affected. Nerve damage in Neuropathies frequently start in your hands and feet, but other parts of your body can be affected too.
Diabetes is estimated that about 25%~ 30% of Americans will be affected by neuropathy. These areas is called peripheral neuropathy, and can lead to pain, tingling, and loss of feeling. People with diabetes carry a risk of amputation that may be more than 25 times greater than that of people without diabetes. So early diagnosis and treatment of this disease is really necessary.
– Eye disease (diabetic retinopathy):
Hyperglycemia can negatively affect every part of the body, including your eyes. It’s caused by damage to the blood vessels of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina).
Blurry vision is often one of the first warning signs of diabetes. Your vision may be blurry because fluid is leaking into the lens of your eye. This makes the lens swell and change shape. Those changes make it hard for your eyes to focus, so things start to look fuzzy. Eventually, it can cause blindness.
You can’t always prevent diabetic retinopathy. However, regular eye exams, good control of your blood sugar and blood pressure, and early intervention for vision problems can help prevent severe vision loss.
– Pregnancy complications:
More and more pregnant women have diabetes. High blood glucose during pregnancy can lead to the foetus putting on excess weight. This can lead to problems in delivery, trauma to the child and mother, and a sudden drop in blood glucose for the child after birth. Children who are exposed for a long time to high blood glucose in the womb are at higher risk of developing diabetes in the future.
Problems during pregnancy may include physical and mental conditions that affect the health of the mother or the baby. These problems can be caused by or can be made worse by being pregnant.
Always talk to your Doctor if you have any concerns about your risk of complications during pregnancy. Some of the most common complications include the following.
– Oral complications:
People with diabetes have an increased risk of inflammation of the gums (periodontitis) if blood glucose is not properly managed. This is because uncontrolled diabetes weakens white blood cells, which are the body’s main defense against bacterial infections that can occur in the mouth.
Addition, uncontrolled diabetes can decrease saliva flow, resulting in dry mouth. Dry mouth can further lead to soreness, ulcers, infections and tooth decay. Periodontitis is a major cause of tooth loss and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Regular oral check-ups should be established to ensure early diagnosis, particularly among people with previously undiagnosed diabetes and prompt management of any oral complications in people with diabetes.
Just as studies have shown that controlling blood sugar levels lowers the risk of major organ complications of diabetes, such as eye, heart, and nerve damage. So to can diabetes protect against the development of your health problems. You should follow as doctor’s advice and, adjust meal, exercise to find out best solution to take control of the disease by normalizing your blood sugar.
Therefore, early diagnosis for the treatment and prevention of diabetic complications is very important. Beside using medication, diet also need care to push back step by step this disease.