How to distinguish type 1 and type 2 diabetes in detail, according to the guidance of Ministry of health

type 1 or type 2 diabetes
Type 1 or type 2 diabetes

Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is a chronic metabolic disorder that is almost impossible to cure. Which is one of the main and common causes of early death or disability in developed countries, mainly causes cardiovascular and neurological complications. Diabetes includes 2 main types: type 1 diabetes accounts for about 10% and type 2 diabetes accounts for 90%. Based on some symptoms one can distinguish these 2 types of disease.

type 1 and type 2 diabetes
Difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes

1. Type 1 diabetes

Also known as insulin-dependent diabetes or diabetes in the young people. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body stops producing or produces too little insulin. Prevent blood glucose from being converted to energy. Making the blood sugar higher than normal. Patients are required to inject insulin to maintain the life.

type 1 dibetes occurs children
Type 1 diabetes usually occurs in children

The type 1 diabetes gene has the same 11 chromosome (the chromosome is the place to store all genetic information with the nucleotic in the cell). Which was been the infection with some viruses such as mumps, Coxakies virus or toxins in the environment can initiate an abnormal antibody response, causing damage to pancreatic insulin secreted cells.

Type 1 diabetes is considered an autoimmune disease, in which the body’s immune system attacks itself and destroys pancreatic islet cells, leading to a decrease or loss of the organ’s ability to produce insulin.

According to statistics type 1 diabetes accounts for about 5-10% of diabetes cases in the world. Type 1 diabetes usually goes away in children and adolescents due to genetic factors or heredity. Patients often accompanied by other autoimmune diseases such as Basedow, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Addison’s disease.

However, now older people with pancreatic destruction by alcohol, disease, … are also at risk for type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, if not detected and intervened in time, the amount of glucose in the blood will accumulate and cause many dangerous complications for the patient’s health.

Some of the more common symptoms of type 1 diabetes include:

  • Thirst and frequent urination,
  • Always feeling hungry, eating a lot but losing weight for no reason,
  • Feeling tired, exhausted
  • Vision is sometimes blurred.

To control the disease, a top priority is to inject insulin as directed by your doctor. In addition, practicing healthy living habits also greatly supports insulin injection therapy, helping the patient to live happily, healthy and optimistic with the disease.

2. Type 2 diabetes

Also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes or adult diabetes.

type 2 diabetes occurs adults
Type 2 diabetes usually occurs in adults

If type 1 diabetes can not produce too little insulin, type 2 diabetics still produce insulin as usual. However, the body can not use insulin to convert glucose into cell energy. This condition is called insulin resistance. The pancreas tries to produce more insulin to speed up its metabolism and at some point experiences a severe loss of function. An imbalance of glucose in the blood appears and adversely affects the patient.

Type 2 diabetes accounts for 85-90% of the global diabetes patients, commonly seen in adults over 40 years old, sometimes still seen in children due to unhealthy eating habits, inactivity and stress to obesity.

In addition, some of these risk factors are also easy to develop into type 2 diabetes: a family of people with diabetes, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, history of gestational diabetes,…

Type 2 diabetes has no obvious symptoms and is difficult to detect because the level of hyperglycaemia is not severe. Some people may feel tired, heal longer, blurred vision, and may urinate a lot, drink a lot, and eat a lot.

Depending on the severity of the disease, the doctor may ask the patient to practice healthy lifestyle habits (proper nutrition, exercise, relaxation), and take hypoglycemic drugs (non-insulin or insulin medicine).

》》》Learn more:

Be Careful with diabetic diet to stabilize blood sugar level. What should Diabetics eat?

3. How to distinguish diabetes?

TypeType 1 diabetesType 2 diabetes

Mechanism of the disease

The body stops producing insulin or too little insulin leads to an inability to regulate blood sugar
The pancreas still produces insulin but not used effectively or the body is resistant to insulin
AgeChildren, teenagers
Some elderly people
Obese, overweight people
Middle-aged people, elderly people
Some young people
OnsetThe symptoms were frantic
Happening slowly and doesn’t manifest itself clearly
CauseDue to an autoimmune mechanism, in which the pancreas is attacked and destroyed by the body itself, it is no longer able to produce insulin

– Genetics: a family history of someone with type 2 diabetes.

– Obesity, inactivity, inadequate diet

TreatmentMust use hypoglycemic hormones such as insulin injection

Change healthy lifestyle, diet and excercise everyday, use drugs or insulin injection.

OthersNoThe most common are metabolic syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia
type 1 diabetes insulin
Type 1 diabetes treatment by insulin injection


type 2 diabetes change diet
Type 2 diabetes treatment by diet changes

The warning signs for type 1 diabetes are increased thirst and urination, constant hunger, weight loss, blurred vision, and extreme fatigue. Meanwhile, people with type 2 diabetes often feel tired or sick, urinate frequently (especially at night), unusual thirst, weight loss, blurred vision, frequent infections and slow injuries heal.

Type 1 diabetes age is children / teenagers, while type 2 is adults and elderly people.

Even type 1, 2 diabetes has very dangerous complications. At any time when there are suspicious signs or symptoms such as paresthesia, numbness of the limbs, headache, thirst, constant hunger, eating a lot but still being thin … need to think about diabetes immediately.

The best way to diagnose diabetes is to need specialized hospitals to be technically tested by doctors, suggesting the most appropriate treatment. In most cases, a doctor will rely on symptoms and age to have a diagnosis. However, with some suspected cases, the patient may have to do additional tests for peptide C, measure insulin concentration or glucagon test. If insulin and peptide C levels are low or do not increase much after glucagon injection, it is type 1 diabetes.

 》》》Learn more:

Safe breakfast for diabetics to fight diabetes

The 5 most effective ways of type 2 diabetes treatment are inseparable



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