Eye diabetes complications – The risk of rapid vision loss

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diabetic eye complication
Diabetic eye complications are one of the most serious complications that should be prevented early  

High blood sugar will lead to many complications on organs in the body such as the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, teeth, nerves, including the eyes. When you have diabetes, the patient will have symptoms of blurred vision, decreased vision. This is because high blood sugar causes the eye lenses to become swollen, which changes your vision.

May be to 2030 year, the world will have more than 500 million people with diabetes and account for 80% of the health burden in middle-low income countries. When you have diabetes, your body loses the ability to use or produce the hormone insulin properly. This condition can cause serious problems for the body, including the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart.

Diabetic eye complications include high glaucoma, cataracts, and retinopathy. These diseases need to be detected early to promptly treat and prevent blindness. People with diabetes need to note the abnormal eye changes to see the eye exam at the hospital.

diabetic eye complication
Diabetic eye complications are one of the most serious complications that should be prevented early
 

1. Diabetes and blurred vision eye complications

Diabetes is a complex metabolic disease in which your body can produce insulin, not produce enough insulin, or simply be able to use it effectively. All of your body’s cells need sugar (glucose) to function. Insulin helps to break down and supply sugar to cells throughout your body.

If you don’t have enough insulin to break it down, then it is hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can negatively affect every part of the body, including your eyes. High blood sugar causes the eye lenses to become swollen, which changes your vision.

Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of diabetes on the retinal vascular system. On average, 1 out of 3 diabetic patients will suffer from eye damage. The longer the illness, the less the control regime of influencing factors (such as blood sugar, blood pressure, and blood fat), the more likely the patient will have retinal complications. Studies show that, after 20 years of disease, most of the patients with type 1 diabetes and more than 60% of cases of type 2 have diabetic retinopathy.

2. Stages of damage on the retina of the eye

Early symptoms of blurred vision are the onset of dark spots in the eye’s vision, flashes of light, holes in the vision or a sudden blurred vision.

neurological diabetes eye retinopathy
Diabetic retinopathy affected eye as compared to that of the normal eye

Level I: The earliest stage, the tiny blood vessels on the retina swell, like tiny balls.
 
Level II: The disease continues to progress, some blood vessels nourishing the retina become blocked, fluid drains out from the lumen of the blood vessels, for example, lipids, red blood cells form secretory clusters, hemorrhage on the retina. 

Level III: The condition worsens, the more blood vessels are blocked, leading to lack of nourishing anemia in the respective retinal area. The body’s defense mechanism promotes the production of new blood vessels to compensate for the retinal loss of nourishment.

Level IV: This is the most severe stage, the retina appears many new blood vessels (new vessels). New vessels are not like normal blood vessels, they have a weak structure, fragile walls, and are fragile. These new blood vessels rapidly multiply, not only on the retina, but also into the vitreous cavity, pulling in fibrous tissues. New vessels themselves do not cause any symptoms, but weak, fragile vessel walls cause hemorrhage.

3. Some of the symptoms of diabetic retinopathy 
 

  • Blurred vision, double vision, deformed vision, or difficulty reading.
  • Seeing flies, black spots like soot or red spots appear in front of your eyes.
  • Partial or complete vision loss, shadow or blurred vision.
  • Frequent soreness, pain, or redness in the eyes.

Self-monitoring is not a good option for people with diabetes, as you could have diabetic retinopathy without a noticeable symptom for a long time. This is also characteristic of retinopathy, asymptomatic until damage and complications occur. It should be noted that, if closely monitored, diabetic retinopathy can prevent blindness by up to 90%.
 

You can also blurred vision if you have cataracts. Cataracts cause the eye’s lens to become cloudy. People with diabetes tend to develop cataracts at a younger age compared to other adults. Other cataract symptoms include: fading color, obscured or blurred vision, sensitivity to light, glare or halos around lights, vision not improving with new or single glasses The drug must change frequently.

4. Treatments for diabetic retinopathy of the eye

Here are 6 ways to take care of healthy eyes for your diabetes:

4.1. Good control of blood sugar

In diabetic retinopathy, not necessarily complications appear on the eye that require intervention. In the stages of non-proliferating diabetic retina, you only need to follow-up periodically unless new macular edema requires treatment. But to prevent progression to the diabetic retina, you need to control your blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol levels well at this stage.

4.2. Routine eye exams

People with diabetes should check their eyes regularly to prevent complications

Routine eye exam every 3-6 months to detect early signs of disease and treat promptly before vision is affected, this helps to protect eyesight to prevent blindness. Currently there are three main methods for effective treatment of diabetic retinopathy, namely laser therapy, intraocular Anti-VEGF injection, and vitreectomy.

4.3. Protect your eyes from the sun

Exposure to UVA rays can contribute to cataracts and macular degeneration, so always shield your eyes from the sun with UVA and UVB sunglasses. You can also wear a wide-brimmed hat or cap when out in the sun.

4.4. Quitting smoking

Smoking has a harmful effect on the entire body system of the human body, especially people with diabetes. Although smoking has not been shown to increase the risk of diabetic retinopathy, it can aggravate many other health problems, including disease of the small blood vessels, including the vascular system blood in the eye. People with diabetes are at risk of having a stroke or heart attack, and smoking can greatly increase that risk.

So by all means quit smoking as soon as possible.

4.5. Exercise regularly

Regular exercise can help improve blood sugar control, one of the factors that contribute to the likelihood of eye damage associated with diabetes. Keep exercising at least 3 times a week for 60 minutes a day and make it a really important routine.

If exercise is difficult, start slowly by walking for 20-30 minutes a day. If you already have eye problems, avoid exercises that tighten the blood vessels in the eyes (like weight lifting and lifting exercises).

》》》 Learn more:

Exercise for Diabetes: 7 excercises rescue you from Diabetes- should try it now!

4.6. Establish a healthy diet

ketogenic-diet-good-for-diabetes
Ketogenic diet with very low carb and high fast which is good for diabetes

Protecting your eyes can start with a well-balanced diet that includes vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, omega-3 fatty acids, lutein, zeaxanthin and zinc that can help reduces the risk of developing cataracts and macular degeneration. Here is a list of foods you can refer to to balance your daily menu:

  • Vitamin A: orange and yellow fruits and vegetables such as eggs, carrots, sweet potatoes, mangoes, … or kale, spinach …
  • Vitamin C: blueberries, raspberries, kiwi, broccoli, papaya, orange, lemon, melon, cauliflower …
  • Vitamin E: nuts and seeds, avocado, pumpkin, sweet potato, mango, tomato, papaya, quinoa, brown rice, oats
  • Beta-Carotene: asparagus, grapefruit, chili, plum, pumpkin, sweet potato, kale, carrot
  • Omega-3 fatty acids: salmon, tuna, mackerel, sardines, anchovies, walnuts, almonds, fish oil, flaxseed oil, black grape seed oil.
  • Lutein and Zeaxanthin: Spinach, kale, broccoli, peas, avocado.
  • Zinc: legumes: black beans, lentils, sunflower seeds, spinach, cashew nuts, mushrooms, seafood, beef, lamb, chicken, pork …

》》》 Learn more:

Be Careful with diabetic diet to stabilize blood sugar level. What foods should Diabetics eat?

The best way to prevent and prevent eye complications, especially retinopathy, is that the patient needs to have good and active control of blood sugar since the first discovery of diabetes and make lifestyle changes accordingly with pathology and body health.

》》》 Learn more:

Kidney Failure- Be Careful Diabetes Can Harm Your Kidneys

Beware of the neurological complications in diabetic patients

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